browse at niemeyer’s — always one better
if it’s about living ones
where nature is at home
Lilium martagon – Turk’s Cap Lily
“ one of the most stately of the lilies indigenous in Europe …
in the North and West (of Germany) rare ”
(Wikipedia) , yet
confirmed with niemeyer’s in lush colony
if it’s about
“ guidance for huntsmen
for their further training ”
The now following individual sheets of the set – provided offer nos. 15,786 to 15,798 and 15,804, 15,807, 15,808 are concerned – throughout etchings with engraving from 1740 as above, thus more or less even measures for plate & margins, plate inscriptions and print quality with, now and then, watermark FIAT instead of WANGEN as supposedly belonging to the same paper mill in Wangen, Allgäu. – Any faults in preservation noted individually in each case though.
“ He guides and is guided in turn ”
Ridinger, Johann Elias (Ulm 1698 – Augsburg 1767). Ducitur ducit(ur)que vicissim — He guides and is guided in turn. Search hunter (tracker) with leader at long lead, stepping out of the woods into the open. In the reset middle distance before tree scenery stopping royal. On the horizon high steeple. Etching & engraving. (1740.) Inscribed: Ducitur ducitqe vicissim. / I. E. Ridinger inv. del. et sc. A. V. 6 × 9⅛ in (15.3 × 23.3 cm; sheet size 17⅞ × 12⅜ in [45.5 × 31.5 cm]).
Thienemann & Schwarz (vol. I, plate X as reference illustration, see below) 162; Sälzle, facsimile ed. of all drawings for the set …, 1980, pp. 12 f. (variant in the same direction from 1739). – Small tear of ⅝ × ⅛ in (1.5 × 0.2 cm) in the left outer margin 4.5 cm wide and faint margin patina, only the lower right corner a bit more from turning over.
The TITLE SHEET to the 23-sheet set of the REPRESENTATION OF THE FAIR GAME with their tracks and traces added … – see illustration above – together with the fullpage PRILIMINARY REPORT in its fine large typography (in German) on the back. The print of its headline & initial in red with Sälzle as here not provable presumably an inconsiderate adaptation to the red headlines of Sälzle’s texts.
The AS A WHOLE FRAMING-WORTHY SHEET with the extensive title text in RED & BLACK above and below the instructive picturesque large vignette
as the classical par force hunt motif
in varying state as here so far known only from the title page of Ridinger’s personal copy of the set raising chronological questions.
Deviating first by the type area measuring in the height 37.8 cm compared with only c. 35.9-36.7 cm (tolerance variations of technical nature) as standard of first edition copies numbered in print. Then by uniformly shorter commas after “Diligence”, “drawn” and “Ridinger” as well as different ornamental termination of the red double line below the vignette. Besides the line spacing more evenly balanced, what is not only owed to the higher text area, rather especially also to a more careful adjustment of the second print run.
In the second edition (Weigel B, Helbing 328) the title was printed uniformly in black, so also Thienemann page 294.
As said personal copy shows besides the initially autograph numbering of the prints two blatant errors in their detail designation, of which Ridinger corrected only one per engraved little cover sheets while the second one still went unnoticed, also the state of its title page, as documented now by present copy, should
signify the earliest state .
From the proportion of which yet then subsequently would have been departed. Analogous to the missing numbering subsequently realized as flaw it therefore also could be conversely and the title of the personal copy, as then the present one, too, be the final, the perfect version only. The question remains unsettled for now, illustrating likewise the unique charm, especially also for the collector, to dedicate passionate attention to divers marks of state, to pick up their traces, and to follow them like those of a rare game.
Offer no. 15,798 / EUR 290. / export price EUR 276. (c. US$ 346.) + shipping
Trace of the Bear / Fore Paw / Hind Paw / or Paws. In sparsely grown rock landscape with shy look walking ahead slowly. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-e. Etching as above. Inscribed: 3. / J. E. Ridinger inv. del. sc. et exc. A. V., otherwise in German as above. 14⅝ × 11¾ in (37.2 × 29.7 cm).
Uniquely beautiful impression with watermark WANGEN as one of the sturdy laid paper qualities preferred by Ridinger. – Margins above & below 3.4-4.9 cm wide, on the left with 1.4 & right with 0.3-0.5 cm margin, each in addition to the wide white platemark. – Upper & lower margin faintly foxstippled, the latter also somewhat agespotted from turning over.
Offer no. 15,787 / sold
Trace of an Ibex / Forced Trace / Fleeting Trace. “Stepping down from rocks … The horns of proper size, and, as in nature, bent down at the tips. – The beard short and thin, often entirely missing” (Th.). Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-c.
Sheet 11 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 173; Sälzle pp. 40 f. (“This brilliant sketchy sheet [pencil, heightened with chalk] demonstrates how few clues Ridinger needed for an etching ready for the press.”). – Only a little stronger and likewise without the trace part, but in the direction of the engraving and executed as washed bister over pencil the sheet of the sale Perl, Berlin (Feb. 21, 1933), today Rhenish private collection. – Lower margin faintly agespotted.
Offer no. 15,807 / sold
niemeyer’s — present for basic hunting research
“ … Most Felicitous Representation ”
Trace of a Game or Deer / on Soft Ground /. on Solid Ground fleetingly. – Sheet 5 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 167; Sälzle pp. 28 f. (dated 1737; with the footprint only). – Lower margin particularly far right partly faintly agespotted by turning over.
“ One take note how peacefully the animal has lied down, contrary to the majestic representation of the royal stags ”, so Sälzle. And Thienemann
“ One cannot admire enough the most felicitous representation. Better rest, mixed with anxiety, cannot be expressed with the noble game .”
Offer no. 15,791 / EUR 730. / export price EUR 694. (c. US$ 870.) + shipping
Trace of the Fallow Deer. Fallow deer standing to the right with the traces fleetingly on solid as well as soft ground below painterly wooded landscape. Postcard in rotogravure after Th. 169 by O. Felsing, Charlottenburg (Berlin). C. 1900/20. 5⅝ × 3⅝ in (14.2 × 9.2 cm). – Unused “ARTIST POSTCARD”. – Dog’s ear still affecting the subject by about 1 cm upper left backed acid-freely.
Offer no. 28,469 / EUR 29. (c. US$ 36.) + shipping
20-points Stag in Rutting Season
In reduced posture in open wooded landscape. Set back on the left lattice of a deer park with entrance. Below the picture the life size traces marked in detail for soft & solid ground. – Sheet 4 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 166; Sälzle mixing illustrations pp. 20 [text] & 27 [ill.].
Compared with the preparatory drawing of 1737 here “instead of the simple lattice with raw laths in the background a stockade from high, sturdy wooden poles. Further the emblematic footprint is replaced by the marks of traces on soft and solid ground” (Sälzle).
The white margin partially somewhat agespotted, below far right a little more from turning over. In addition small tear at the fold of the wide white lower margin backed acid-freely.
Offer no. 15,796 / EUR 780. / export price EUR 741. (c. US$ 929.) + shipping
of Gratefulness ,
“ Traces …
drawn with lots of pains , time and effort
(in the manner of the house) ”
and reminisced on occasion of the
of the active 50-years relation
to a Westphalian collector
of the first hour
lasting down to recent years .
My greetings to the 99th the previous year
had reached him still .
His now this year’s
we remembered one of these days
by festive small dinner .
“ A Chief Boar … all Nature ”
Wild Boar Trace or Sow Track. “In the wallow strutting along … Reeds, marsh grasses, copper beech” (Th.). Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-g. – Sheet 6 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 168; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt (1999), III.21 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 30 f. (dated 1738). – Upper & lower margin faintly agespotted.
Offer no. 15,804 / sold
At a Sportsman’s I saw it
in the Gentlemen’s Room
Trace of the Wild Tomcat. In original mixed forest landscape on a stone pedestal in crooked position
“ licking his posterior , to report respectfully ”
(Th.). Below the picture the life size traces on solid ground & in soft ground fleetingly, numbered for claws, toe print & pads. – Sheet 18 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 180. – Varying from the preparatory drawing Sälzle pp. 56 f. in which the tomcat is occupied with a captured snipe-like bird. – Upper & lower margin faintly foxstippled.
Offer no. 15,795 / EUR 630. / export price EUR 599. (c. US$ 751.) + shipping
Wolf Track. / on soft Ground. / on solid ground fleetingly. “A hungry wolf, howling, with lowered hindquarters and tail” (Th.) before boulder in lightly wooded mountainscape. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-c. – Sheet 8 of the set.
Thienemann & Schwarz 170; Sälzle pp. 34 f. – Compared to the preparatory drawing of 1737 the single trace there is expanded to the track here. – Upper & lower margin faintly foxstippled, the latter besides somewhat agespotted.
Offer no. 15,797 / sold
– The same in toned lithograph by Hermann Menzler printed by A. Renaud for L. J. Heymann in Berlin. (1863-65.) Inscribed: Gez. v. J. E. Ridinger, lith. v. H. Menzler etc. 13¾ × 9⅛ in (35 × 23.1 cm).
Joh. El. Ridinger’s Hunting Album I/16. – From the Representation of the best known Game of Central Europe together with Tracks or Traces carried as 1st part. – The whole rare set almost unknown to literature and practically to be completed just peu à peu comprises 80 sheet plus a recently discovered illustrated title of far larger image size (13¾ × 14⅛ in [47.5 × 36 cm]). Partly compressed to their principal motif or varied in their environment, they are a first degree collection enrichment. – In the pictorial effect corresponding to that of the aquatint technique not used by Ridinger anymore. – On strong, wide-margined paper and except for a bruise below the image extending to the caption of impeccable freshness.
Offer no. 28,434 / EUR 345. / export price EUR 328. (c. US$ 411.) + shipping
niemeyer’s — for the wealth of ridingeriana
Trace or Track of the Lynx. / in the walk in soft ground / fleetingly on solid ground. Bobcat standing broad with look at the beholder in sparse rock landscape. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-c. – Sheet 10 of the set.
“ … the animal again greatly misrepresented … In the etching the lynx trace is replaced by ‘Trace or Track’. The drawing belonging to is missing. The trace sometimes shows with, mostly yet without print of the claws, for the lynx draws them in ‘like a cat …’ ” (Sälzle).
Offer no. 15,786 / sold
Trace of a Hare / * in soft ground. / Fore Leg.* / Fore Leg on Solid Ground / Hind Leg.* / Hind Leg on Solid Ground. Brown hare stopping on the narrow clearing of a dense deciduous forest. Below the picture the life size traces marked in addition specifically for the claws. – Sheet 13 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 175; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt (1999), III.25 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 44 f. (dated 1737) & pl. XXIX. – Lower margin far right slightly finger-spotted from turning over, some tiny spots also centrally of the outer edge.
“ On the etched sheet the (single) hare trace (of the preparatory drawing below the picture) is replaced by traces of the hare in soft and on solid ground ” (Sälzle).
That on the separate drawing with the four traces (Sälzle plate XXIX) – as then also transferred onto the early prints still numbered by hand – Ridinger mixed up the foreleg with the hind leg twice by erroneous assignment of the specified symbols x and # is missed by Sälzle. Such a proof figured with Helbing (Ridinger catalog XXXIV; 1900) as lot 356. On the corresponding sheet of Ridinger’s personal copy here of exclusive proofs for sheets 1-20 the master has corrected this oversight by specially engraved little cover sheets as documented so far here as unique.
Offer no. 15,808 / EUR 630. / export price EUR 599. (c. US$ 751.) + shipping
– The same as rotogravure postcard by O. Felsing, Charlottenburg (Berlin). C. 1900/20. 5⅜ × 3⅝ in (13.8 × 9.3 cm). – Unused “ARTIST CARD”.
Offer no. 28,470 / EUR 29. (c. US$ 36.) + shipping
and a Needle
in the Master’s Haystack of the Deer into the Bargain
Trace of a Chamois / in Soft Ground / on solid Ground. “Fleeting summer chamois in wild mountainscape” (Sälzle). Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-d and commented “If the backs are not seen then the trace is fleeting”. – Sheet 12 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 174; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt (1999), III.24 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 42 f. (dated 1737).
“ The inscription to the trace illustration runs on the etched sheet … The extraordinarily sketchy and inaccurate drawing for it has not been used for the engraving though, and so it is not reproduced with us ” (Sälzle).
Upper and lower margin faintly fox stippled, the latter also somewhat age spotted from turning over, isolated fox stipples besides in its trace field.
Offer no. 15,792 / EUR 780. / export price EUR 741. (c. US$ 929.) + shipping
Trace of a Beaver / Fore Leg / Hind Leg. “Beaver at a dam with reeds and marsh grasses as well as rugged wall of rock in the background …” (Sälzle). “The head is a bit too large” (Th.). Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-e. – Sheet 15 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 177; Sälzle pp. 48 f. – Upper & lower margin faintly agespotted, with the former partially only.
Offer no. 15,789 / EUR 630. / export price EUR 599. (c. US$ 751.) + shipping
– The same in chamois-colored tone lithograph by Hermann Menzler by A. Renaud for L. J. Heymann in Berlin. (1863-65.) Inscribed: Gez. v. J. E. Ridinger, lith. v. H. Menzler etc., otherwise as above. 14 × 9⅛ in (35.7 × 23.1 cm).
Joh. El. Ridinger’s Hunting Album I/9. – From the Representation of the best known Game of Central Europe together with Tracks or Traces carried as 1st part as above. – On buff paper with extremely wide margins fit to the sheet size (24⅜ × 18½ in [62 × 47 cm]) of the illustrated title with some backed small margin tears.
Compared with Ridinger’s model designed utterly freely in the image field and representing the traces in correspondence with the generally somewhat smaller size in just about ⅔ of their natural size. Independent of its value as both instructive and painterly piece again a quite interesting asset for every Ridinger stock.
Offer no. 13,111 / EUR 322. / export price EUR 306. (c. US$ 384.) + shipping
Trace of an Otter / Right Fore Leg / Left hind Leg. In wild rock scenery a “Fine cascade, in front of which an otter lurks for prey, therefore moonshine” (Th.). In the water reflection of its head. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-e.
Sheet 16 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 178; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt (1999), III.27 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 50 ff. (dated 1739). – Upper & lower margin slightly foxstippled, the latter also somewhat agespotted from turning over and the former centrally of the outer edge somewhat fissured-glue-traces from previous binding. – Sälzle :
“ While in the etching the landscape appears unaltered, Ridinger put the otter, not to the advantage, into another position …
That Ridinger has not taken the composition of his sheets easy is illustrated best by (one) variant not engraved in comparison with (present) picture … which has to be considered a preparatory drawing for it. Here, too, we see the same rock landscape, however, on the left moved somewhat towards the background by which the sky becomes visible; between cascade and otter a rock part behind which a cypress-like stock of trees rises out, instead of the left rock here reeds. Unsigned … A comparison (of this variant) with (the eventual preparatory drawing) illustrates Ridinger’s method and his endeavor to a more accentuated composition. ”
Offer no. 15,794 / EUR 630. / export price EUR 599. (c. US$ 751.) + shipping
– The same in toned lithograph by Hermann Menzler printed by A. Renaud for L. J. Heymann in Berlin. (1863-65.) Inscribed: Gez. v. J. E. Ridinger, lith. v. H. Menzler etc. 13⅝ × 9 in (34.5 × 23 cm).
Joh. El. Ridinger’s Hunting Album I/11. – On buff wide-margined paper of impeccable freshness. The inscription of the printer Renaud only barely perceptible.
Offer no. 28,436 / EUR 355. / export price EUR 337. (c. US$ 423.) + shipping
– The same as rotogravure postcard by O. Felsing, Charlottenburg (Berlin). C. 1900/20. 5½ × 3⅝ in (14.1 × 9.3 cm). – Unused “ARTIST POSTCARD”.
Offer no. 28.471 / EUR 29. (c. US$ 36.) + shipping
Stood Model for the
“Blue Rider” Franz Marc
Trace of a Marten / Fore Paws / Hind Paws / Trace of the Weasel / Little Fore Leg / Little Hind Leg. Pine marten in slightly apocalyptic tree landscape looking down at the weasel on the ground. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-c and d-f resp.
Sheet 19 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 181; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt, 1999, III.29 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 58 f. (dated 1739). – Posture of the weasel and the lower part of the marten’s tree modified as against the preparatory drawing from 1739. – Acid-freely backed margin tear laterally lower left still extending into the white platemark. Faint age spots in the lower margin.
Thematically set in context here for the first time
to Franz Marc’s painting “Playing Weasels”
from 1911, Hoberg-Jansen 144 with illustration.
As inspired by Ridinger known hitherto only Marc’s woodcut “Riding School after Ridinger” from 1913 (Lankheit 839) as detail interpretation of the background figure of the mounted rider of the third sheet (Th. 608, see its preparatory drawing traded here) of the 1722 Riding School annotated by literature with
“ Illuminating that Marc with his quite intimate knowledge of art history
turns to just these masters of the presentation of the horse (Delacroix and Ridinger)
of the 19th and 18th centuries resp. as models ”
(Christian von Holst, Franz Marc – Pferde, 2003, pp. 166 ff. within [… the Hoofbeats of my Horses]).
For already his painting Playing Weasels from 1911, preceded 1909/10 by the lithograph of the same name, betrays the knowledge of several Ridinger coppers from entirely different sets. Marc shows two weasels, of which the one in the tree, bowed over a bough, looks down upon the one sitting in raised attitude on the ground. The trees besides of an eccentricity which he uses in this ostensible density in the painted œuvre only in the two “Acts below Trees”, H.-J. 143, of the same year. For the thematic initial spark Ridinger’s small-sized sheet The Weasels (Th. 479) from 1740 as sheet 89 of the set Design of Several Animals stands. Here, too, two of them playing, yet both on the ground and in an utterly different context. The latter Marc split up. And took the attitude of the two animals from sheet 86 of the set, the two pine martens Th. 476 (additionally available here the companion piece with the two beech martens Th. 475 plus the original printing plates to both). The young one of which hangs across a bough of equally low height as with Marc and looks down at the mother standing on the hind paws against the trunk luring with a captured bird. Playing Squirrels as sheet 88 (Th. 478) shows the same situation, only with the difference of a further one in the tree, too, but keeping a little aloof and not involved in the play. Yet the bizarre tree – and as such also Sälzle characterizes it expressly in his 1980 edition of the preparatory drawings of present set – as rather rare also for Ridinger he took from present sheet of the Trace of a Marten / Trace of the Weasel with the same attitude of the marten in the tree and the, however, neutrally shown weasel on the ground.
Thus Marc designed his Playing Weasels just so by means of divers Ridinger references as the latter on his part composed his Amusement of the Shepherds after Watteau, Th.-Stillfried 1397, from four models of the Frenchman. That finally also the more typical trees of Ridinger’s were not unfamiliar to Marc, the right group of trees of his painterly forest interior The Würm at Pipping from 1902/03, H.-J. 15 with ills., demonstrates. But also the par force scenery on the watercolor Ried Castle from 1914 – Holst, ills. 11, p. 29 – stands for a further example of Marc’s occupation with Ridinger,
which in this plurality has been missed till now .
Offer no. 15,793 / EUR 745. / export price EUR 708. (c. US$ 888.) + shipping
– The same in shining, yet less wide-margined impression rich in contrast: trilaterally narrow margin and upper right trimmed to platemark on 6 cm resp. Margin below 3-3.5 cm wide. – On back above remains of glue strip from previous mounting in boards.
Offer no. 15,770 / EUR 690. / export price EUR 656. (c. US$ 823.) + shipping
– The same in toned lithograph by Hermann Menzler printed by A. Renaud for L. J. Heymann in Berlin. (1863-65.) Inscribed: Gez. v. J. E. Ridinger, lith. v. H. Menzler etc., otherwise as above. 14 × 9 in (35.5 × 23 cm). – Joh. El. Ridinger’s Hunting Album I/14. – On wide-margined light carton of impeccable freshness. The inscription of the printer Renaud somewhat faint.
Offer no. 28.427 / EUR 355. / export price EUR 337. (c. US$ 423.) + shipping
niemeyer’s — for the variety of ridingeriana
Trace of the Badger / Hind Leg / Fore Leg. This in cozy wooded landscape while leaving his earth. Below the picture the life size traces detailed a-c.
Sheet 17 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 179; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt, 1999, III.28 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 54 f. (dated 1738). – Upper & lower margin faintly foxspotted, the latter also somewhat agespotted from turning over and acid-freely backed small tear outside left.
Offer no. 15,788 / sold
Trace of the Polecat in Soft Ground. / Fore Leg Hind Leg / Trace of the Squirrel in Soft Ground. / Little Fore Leg Little Hind Leg. Below the picture of a wooded painterly mountainscape the life size traces.
Sheet 20 of the set. – Thienemann & Schwarz 182; Ridinger catalog Darmstadt, 1999, III.28 with illustration; Sälzle pp. 60 f. – The “mountains indicated only here and there” in the preparatory drawing from 1739 “are carefully executed in (present) etching, the squirrel is, not to its advantage, modified” (Sälzle). While sitting in typical eating posture on a thin branch there, so here it is about to leap down from this, now in addition free-floating. Whereas the polecat true to the design carries away an egg. – Lower margin slightly fox and age spotted.
Offer no. 15,790 / EUR 590. / export price EUR 561. (c. US$ 704.) + shipping
To enlarge upon all their above 22 animals’ copper traces finally “the Sälzle” as guidance to the graphic sources shall be recommended warmly , as was present above sheet by sheet as
The SET of
the PREPARATORY DRAWINGS with their ERRORS
as the final touch addition to the copper set
Ridinger, Johann Elias. (Representation of the Fair Game with their respective Tracks and Traces, Goings, Get-offs, Turns, Flight, and other Marks more … drawn from Nature). Set of preparatory drawings in brush, chalk and graphite from 1737/39. FULL-SIZE FACSIMILE EDITION in four colors. Ed. by Karl Sälzle. 1980. Large fol. 77 pp., 1 l. incl. plts. With
32 plates incl. the father’s portrait in mezzotint
by Johann Jacob Ridinger of 1767 & title of the work’s printed edition. Orig. marbled h. vellum with vellum-corners and green marbled covers in uniform h. cloth slipcase.
(Thienemann p. 275, i.) – Text (in German) in red & black. – Accompanied by Ridinger’s original “Preliminary Report” – the print of its headline & opening initial in red as not provable here presumably an inconsiderate adaptation to the red headlines of the editor’s contributions – the
noble first-time edition
of the set of drawings furnished with Weigel provenance
to the set of etchings Th. 162-185, in which the trace fields remained partly empty and were executed on separate sheets only. So in 11 cases here collected on 7 plates.
Present edition of the preparatory drawings documents at the same time the
variants & errors
the knowledge of which along with additional optical pleasure qualifies the set as indispensable complement to the definitive work.
One pictorial variant each to the 20-point-stag Th. 166 (plates X & VII, the text of which erroneously interchanged) & to the otter Th. 178. In the drawings still “greatly misrepresented” roebuck, lynx and beaver (Th. 171, 172, 177), whereas the tomcat (Th. 180) more naturally depicted in the drawing is much changed in the copper. In contrast more carefully executed there, however, the mountains which are outlined only on the drawing.
Of greatest evidence interest finally
so splendidly beautiful & instructive
for present first publication of the drawings
to one of the most important ones of the sets
in regard of hunting & natural history
as representation edition in half vellum
with green marbled covers in correspondingly marbled de luxe slipcase.
To which nonetheless – then original price adequate 700 DM = 358 € ! – applies what George Bernard Shaw hitting the bull’s eye sarcastically attested paintings:
“ If more than 10% of the people like a painting ,
you can be sure it’s bad. ”
“The Sälzle” was ultimately sold off by the publisher . Well then .
Offer no. 28,595 / sold
“ ich habe kuerzlich Ihre web site über die Rugendasfamilie gefunden, welche ich von grosser inhaltlicher Qualität und Interesse finde … ”
(Señ. G. E., 19. Dezember 2003)